Gilleland & Merkosky Services, Inc.

Specializing in Heating and Air Conditioning Services

244 East Fayette Street ▪ Uniontown, Pennsylvania 15401

Phone Numbers: 724-439-7620 or 724-437-2430

Fax Number: 724-437-3226







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At the heart of the GeoExchange system is the earth loop.  This earth loop is the vehicle that transfers heat to or from the ground, distinguishing GeoExchange from ordinary equipment.

Earth loops come in two basic types: closed and open.  Closed loops, made of durable plastic pipe, are buried in the earth or submerged in a lake or pond, and transfer heat by circulating a solution through the system.  Open loops use ground water pumped from a well as a heat source.  The decision on which loop configuration to use depends on the land terrain, the cost of trenching or drilling, the availability of quality ground water and the availability of land.


Closed Loop - Horizontal

If adequate land is available, horizontal loops can be installed.  Using a chain trencher or backhoe, the loop installer digs one or more trenches four to six feet deep.  Trench lengths range from 100 to 300 feet, depending on the loop design and application

Another technique utilizes special equipment to bore holes horizontally under the surface.  This technology created a small-diameter tunnel underground by displacing soil with pressurized water.  This technique allows the loop to be placed underneath homes, basements, wooded lots or even swimming pools without disrupting grass or landscaping.


Closed Loop - Vertical

If land area is limited, closed loops can be inserted into vertical bore holes.  Holes are drilled to a depth of about 125 to 200 feet.  U-shaped loops of pipe are inserted into the holes.  The holes are then backfilled with sealing solution.





Closed Loop - Lake or Pond

Because water transfers heat better than soil, closed loops can be coiled and placed on the bottom of a pond or lake where it transfers heat to or from the water.  A 1/2 acre, 8-foor-deep pond is usually sufficient.  Pond or lake loops are often less expensive to install.





Open Loop - Well System

If an abundant supply of quality well water is available, an open loop system can be installed.  A proper discharge site, such as a ditch, field tile, stream, or pond, must be available.  Be sure to check all local codes before selecting a discharge method.  This installation usually costs less to install and delivers the same high efficiency.





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Information from the Geothermal Journal published by WaterFurnace International, Inc.